Microbiota from womb to adult

Normal microbiota changes during pregnancy including increases in oral presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria in gastrointestinal tract.  Probiotic consumption of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis in pregnant women with metabolic disorder decreased fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus. Probiotics able to enhance the immunosuppressive environment of the uterus either through direct colonization of the placenta and amniotic fluid, or by a peripheral interaction.

Maternally administered probiotics may impact the health of a newborn by altering the bacteria that initially colonize the developing infant. Maternal probiotics thus have the potential to influence neonatal immune development as the initial development of the immune system is dependent on the gut microbiota.

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